What is your age?
Age is an important factor in the risk of testicular cancer. The risk of testicular cancer is highest in young men between the ages of 15 and 34.
Has anyone in your immediate family been diagnosed with testicular cancer?
Family history plays a role in the risk of testicular cancer. If close family members, such as father, brother or son, have been diagnosed with testicular cancer, it can increase the man's risk. This question helps identify familial risk. If you answer yes to this, you should discuss in more detail with your doctor how you should be followed up
Do you have a family history of breast or ovarian cancer?
A family history of testicular, breast or ovarian cancer can increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. This question helps identify familial predisposition.
Have you experienced a change in one or both of your testicles?
- Lump or swelling in the testicles
- Pain or discomfort in the testicles or groin
- Changes in the size or shape of the testicles
- Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
If you have experienced the above symptoms, it may be a reason to seek medical evaluation, although the symptoms may also be due to conditions other than testicular cancer.
Do you have persistent pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen or back?
Persistent pain, which does not go away with relief, should be examined by a doctor. In some cases, it can be a late sign of testicular cancer.
Have you experienced enlargement of the mammary glands?
Testicular cancer can produce estrogen, which can lead to breast enlargement in men. Contact a doctor if this applies to you.
Have you previously been diagnosed with testicular cancer?
If you have previously had testicular cancer in one testicle, this is an important factor to consider. The risk of recurrent testicular cancer may be increased.
Have you previously had a testicle that had not descended into the scrotum (cryptorchidism) before puberty?
Cryptorchidism increases the risk of testicular cancer. If the condition is surgically corrected before puberty, the risk decreases.
Although cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer, it does not necessarily mean that all men with this condition will develop cancer. Nevertheless, it is important that men with cryptorchidism are aware of this increased risk and follow this up with a doctor.
Have you been diagnosed with HIV?
HIV infection can increase the risk of testicular cancer. This question is important to assess your overall risk profile.
What is your biological parentage?
Testicular cancer has a higher incidence in certain countries, such as Denmark, Norway, Germany and Switzerland. Lower incidence is usually seen in Africa and Asia. The exact reasons for these geographic differences are not fully understood, but environmental factors and genetics have been investigated as possible contributors.
It is important to note that testicular cancer is relatively rare regardless of ethnicity or geographic location. Most men, regardless of their background, will not develop this form of cancer. If you have any concerns or risk factors for testicular cancer, it is best to discuss them with a doctor, who can advise on prevention and early detection.
Do you regularly self-exam your testicles?
Many cases of testicular cancer are discovered by the patients themselves by noticing a lump or changes in the testicles. Regular examinations of your testicles can therefore be one of the most important things you do.
Should I see a doctor for a testicular examination?
If any of these symptoms or risk factors are present, it is important to seek medical advice and a thorough examination by a doctor.